SST CLASS-X Question Paper

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CODE:-32/1 SET-1

Social Studies SST CLASS-X Question Paper and Their Solution-CODE:-32/1 SET-1

Q.1 Why were big European powers met in Berlin in 1885? OR Why merchants from towns in Europe were began to move countryside in seventeenth and eighteenth centuries?

OR Why did Charles Booth, a Liverpool ship owner conduct the first social survey of low skilled workers in the East End of London in 1887?
Ans. The partition of Africa started with the Berlin Conference from 1884-1885 which was held in Berlin. OR Trade guilds, associations of producers, trained craftsmen and artisans. They restricted the entry of new people into the trade OR Poverty was not unknown in the countryside; it was more concentrated and starkly visible in the city. In 1887, Charles Booth, a Liverpool ship-owner, conducted the first social survey of lowskilled London workers in the East End of London.

Q.2 Why did the Roman Catholic Church impose control over publishers and booksellers?
OR Why do novels use vernacular?

Ans. Print led to religious debates and fear of print.People could express their ideas in print andspread them. Fear of books spread.Rebellious and irreligious thoughts could bespread by new books. Dissent became a part of print. The clergy became afraid of the new awakening. Catholic Church began inquisition to repress heretical ideas.They began to maintain an Index of Prohibited Books from 1558. OR

They were written in the language common to people.
Vernacular novels create the sense of shared world between the diverse people of the nation.
Novels were read individually and sometimes in groups that’s why.

Q.3 Classify resources on the basis of origin.
Ans. Biotic and Abiotic Resources:
Resources obtained from the biosphere like forests, wildlife, fisheries, livestock, human beings, etc., which have life, are called biotic resources. Resources which are obtained from non-living things are called abiotic resources. Iron, copper, gold and lead are abiotic resources.

Q.4 ‘A challenge is not just any problem but an opportunity for progress’. Analyse the statement.
Ans. A CHALLENGE IS AN OPPORTUNITY FOR PROGRESS:
A challenge is not just a problem.
A challenge is a difficulty that carries within it an opportunity for progress.
Once we overcome a challenge we go up higher level.
Legal challenges alone cannot overcome challenges to democracy like inequality, poverty, unemployment illiteracy, regionalism, casteism, communalism etc. .
Legal constitutional changes and the cooperation of the citizen is the need of hour .

Q.5 State any two goals of development other than income.
Ans. Peace, Friendship, Love, Job Security etc. (any non-material thing)

Q.6 When we produce goods by exploiting natural resources, in which category of economic sector such activities come?
Ans. Primary Sector (Because these economic activities are directly tied to the extraction resources of the earth. Such economic activities occur at the beginning of the production cycle where people live in close contact with the resources of the land. Such primary economic activities produce basic food stuff and raw materials for industry and may include; agriculture, hunting and gathering, pastoral farming, crop cultivation, forestry, mining, logging and fishing.

Q.7 Give any two examples of informal sector of credit.
Ans. Money lenders, Friends, Relatives, Landlords etc.

Q.8 Describe the impact of ‘Rinderpest’ on people’s livelihoods and local economy in Africa in the 1890s. OR Describe any three major problems faced by Indian cotton weavers in nineteenth century.

OR Describe any three steps taken to clean up London during nineteenth century.

Ans. Rinderpest or the Cattle Plague arrived in Africa from Europe.

It destroyed nearly 90% of the livestock and
Destroyed the livelihood of the Natives.
Mine owners and colonial powers benefited by it and Africa ceased to be a free continent.
OR

Weavers suffered the most. Forced to work for the Company, who acted through their agents called Gomasthas.

After 1770s, the English controlled trade, eliminated competition, prevented the weavers from dealing with other buyers. They were severely punished for delays.
There was desertion and migration by farmers of Carnatic and Bengal weavers.
Manchester came to India in the form of cotton textiles produced in English factories.
Imposition of import duties on Indian cotton and sale of British goods in Indian markets at cheaper rates led to decline in Indian exports of cotton piece goods.
OR

Cleaning London: It was an immediate problem due to the growth of slums. Life expectancy of a worker was at an average 29, as compared to 55 among gentry. Steps taken to clean London were :
(i) Decongestion of localities by introduction of rent control
(ii) Increasing green open space by building suburbs or countryside homes for the rich.
(iii) Landscaping and building cottages for single families etc.
(iii) Modern communication facilities like the internet allow commercial transactions to take place over large distances including overseas transaction. They also keep buyers and sellers informed about their present and prospective markets.

Q.9 “The ‘Print Revolution’ had transformed the lives of people changing their relationship to information and knowledge”. Analyse the statement. OR Distinguish between the themes of ‘Pride and Prejudice’ and ‘Jane Eyre’ novels written by Jane Austen and Charlotte Bronte respectively.
Ans. It was not just a development, a new way of producing books; it transformed the lives of people, changing their relationship to information and knowledge, and with institutions and authorities. It influenced popular perceptions and opened up new ways of looking at things.
1. With the printing press, a new reading public emerged. Access to books created a new culture of reading. Earlier, reading was restricted to the elites. Common people lived in a world of oral culture. They heard sacred texts read out, ballads recited, and folk tales narrated. Knowledge was transferred orally.
2. Print created the possibility of wide circulation of ideas, and introduced a new world of debate and discussion. Not everyone welcomed the printed book, and those who did also had fears about it.
3. Print and popular religious literature stimulated many distinctive individual interpretations of faith even among little-educated working people. OR
Women writers explored the world of women, their emotions, identities, experiences and problems. (i) Jane Austen’s (1775–1817) Pride and Prejudice portrays life of women ingenteel rural society in the early 19thcentury England.
(ii) Charlotte Bronte’s (1816–1855) Jane Eyre portrayed an independent and assertivegirl who protests against hypocrisy andcruelty.

Q.10 How has the ever increasing number of industries in India made worse position by exerting pressure on existing fresh water resources? Explain.
Ans: Water pollution:
1.Coal, dyes, soaps, pesticides, fertilisers, plastics and rubber are some common pollutants.
2. The principal industries which create water pollution are paper pulp, textiles, chemical, petroleum, refinery, tannery and electroplating.
3. Thermal pollution of water occurs when hot-water from factories and thermal plants is drained into rivers and ponds before cooling.

Q.11 “Dense and efficient network of transport is a pre-requisite for local and national development”. Analyse the statement.
Ans: Arguments to support this statement are: (i) fast and efficiently moving transport is required for traded items to reach their destinations on time, otherwise business will suffer.
(ii) Transport is required to carry raw materials to production centers.
(iv) From manufacturing hubs to markets particularly for perishable goods.
(v) Movement of people again is very important for trade and business.
Thus, it can be concluded that dense and efficient network of transport is a pre-requisite for national and international trade.

Q.12 Describe any three provisions of amendment made in ‘Indian Constitution’ in 1992 for making ‘Three-Tiger’ government more effective and powerful.

Ans. Important features of 1992 amendments:

Mandatory to hold regular elections to the local government bodies.
Reservations of seats for scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and other backward classes. The rights of Adivasis are protected in a special Act passed in 1996.
1/3 of positions reserved for women.
A state Finance Commission examines the financial position.
29 subjects which were in the State list have been transferred to the Panchayati Raj institutions by the 11th schedule of the Constitution.
A State Election Commission has been created in each state to conduct Panchayat and Municipal election.

Q.13 Explain the three factors that are crucial in deciding the outcome of politics of social divisions.
Ans. Factors that decide the outcomes of social divisions
(i) How do people see their identities? If people think they are Indians first, and then they are Bengali, Punjabietc. or a religious or language group, then there will be no conflict. Trouble in Ireland was because they thoughtfirst that they were Catholics or Protestants and then Irish. In Belgium, it was the opposite. First Belgians, then Dutch or French speaking.
(ii) Reaction of Political Parties is another factor. Peace remains if one community does not try to dominate the others. For example, in Sri Lanka, the demands of “only Sinhala” was at the cost of Tamil speaking community. In Yugoslavia, each ethnic group made demands for itself only, with the result that the country was divided into six nations.
(iii) Depends on how the government reacts to the demands. If the rulers are willing to share power (as in Belgium) there is no threat to the unity of the country. But if suppressed in the name of national unity (as in Sri Lanka), it leads to violence.

Q.14 “Secularism is not an ideology of some political parties or persons, but it is one of the foundations of our country”. Examine the statement.

Ans. Communalism was and continues to be one of the major challenges to democracy in our country. The makers of our Constitution were aware of this challenge. That is why they chose the model of a secular state.

1. There is no official religion for the Indian state. Unlike the status of Buddhism in Sri Lanka, that of Islam in Pakistan and that of Christianity in England, our Constitution does not give a special status to any religion.
2. The Constitution provides to all individuals and communities freedom to profess, practice and propagate any religion, or not to follow any.
3.The Constitution prohibits discrimination on grounds of religion.
4. At the same time the Constitution allows the state to intervene in the matters of religion in order to ensure equality within religious communities. For example, it bans untouchability.
Q.15 How is the issue of sustainability important for development? Explain with examples.
Ans: Sustainable development is that process which fulfils the needs of present generation, without causing any harm to the ability of the future generation to meet their own needs.
1. It requires preservation of stock of resources including exhaustible natural resources and environmental resources.
2. Recent studies show that groundwater in India is exhausted because of overuse. 1/3 of the country is overusing its groundwater reserves. Another area is exhaustion of natural resources. The resources of crude oil would last only for 43years more.

Q.16 Distinguish the service conditions of organized sector with that of unorganized sector.
Ans: Differences between Organized and Unorganized Sectors:
1. Organized sector covers those enterprises or places of work where the terms of employment are regular. They are registered by the government and have to follow its rules and regulations. Therefore people have job security.
2. Unorganized sector covers small and scattered units which are largely outside the control of the government. There are rules and regulations but they are generally not being implemented by the unorganized sector. Employment is not secure in the unorganized sector.
3.In unorganized sector protection and support is required for the workers for their economic and social development. Besides getting irregular an low paid work, they also face social discrimination.

Q.17 Why is cheap and affordable credit important for the country’s development? Explain any three reasons.
Ans. Credit plays a crucial role in a country’s financial development.

It helps in increasing the economic activities of the country.
Thus improve the living standard of people if used properly.
It may improve the economic condition of the poor and landless.
It helps in establishment of industries.

Q.18 How can consumer awareness be spread among consumers to avoid exploitation in the market place? Explain any three ways.
Ans. Consumer awareness can be spread through:

The enactment of COPRA has led to the setting up of separate departments of Consumer Affairs in central and state governments.
The posters that you have seen are one example through which government spread information about legal process which people can use. You might also be seeing such advertisements on television channels.
Taking Bills
be aware about their rights.
Leave lazy attitude.

Q.19 Describe the explosive conditions prevailed in Balkans after 1871 in Europe.
OR Describe the role of different religious groups in the development of anti-colonial feeling in Vietnam.
Ans. The major European powers, in turn, manipulated the nationalist aspirations of the subject peoples in Europe to further their own imperialist aims. The most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe after 1871 was the area called the Balkans.
The Balkans was a region of geographical and ethnic variation comprising modern-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro whose inhabitants were broadly known as the Slavs.
A large part of the Balkans was under the control of the Ottoman Empire. The spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism in the Balkans together with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made this region very explosive.
The rebellious nationalities in the Balkans thought of their struggles as attempts to win back their long-lost independence. As the different Slavic nationalities struggled to define their identity and independence, the Balkan area became an area of intense conflict.
The Balkan states were fiercely jealous of each other and each hoped to gain more territory at the expense of the others.
Matters were further complicated because the Balkans also became the scene of big power rivalry due to its strategic importance .This led to a series of wars in the region and finally the First World War.
OR
Religious beliefs of Vietnam were a mixture of Buddhism, Confucianism and local practices.
The French introduced Christianity, their Missionaries were hostile to the easy-going attitude of the Vietnamese towards religion.?
Scholars’ Revolt of 1868 :Led by officials of the Imperial Court. Uprising in Ngu An and Ha Tien provinces killed a thousand Catholics. By the middle of the 18th century 300,000 people converted to Christianity. Revolt suppressed by the French.
The HoaHaoMovement began in 1939 under its founder Huynh Phu So.
Q.20 How did non-cooperation movement start with participation of middle class people in the cities? Explain its impact on the economic front.
OR Why was congress reluctant to allow women to hold any position of authority within the organization? How did women participate in civil disobedience movement? Explain.

Ans. The movement started with middle-class participation in the cities.
Thousands of students left government-controlled schools and colleges, headmasters and teachers resigned, and lawyers gave up their legal practices. The council elections were boycotted in most provinces except Madras, where the Justice Party, the party of the non-Brahmans, felt that entering the council was one way of gaining some power – something that usually only Brahmans had access to.
The effects of non-cooperation on the economic front were more dramatic. Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed, and foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfires. The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921 and 1922, its value dropping from Rs 102 crore to Rs 57 crore. In many places merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade. As the boycott movement spread, and people began discarding imported clothes and wearing only Indian ones, production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up.
OR

Women participated in protest marches, manufactured salt, and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops. Many went to jail.
In urban areas these women were from high-caste families; in rural areas they came from rich peasant households. Moved by Gandhiji’s call, they began to see service to the nation as a sacred duty of women.
Yet, this increased public role did not necessarily mean any radical change in the way the position of women was visualized. Gandhiji was convinced that it was the duty of women to look after home and hearth, be good mothers and good wives.
And for a long time the Congress was reluctant to allow women to hold any position of authority within the organization.
It was keen only on their symbolic presence.

Q.21 “The government of India has introduced various institutional and technological reform to improve agriculture in the 1980s and 1990s.” support this statement with examples. OR Compare ‘intensive subsistence farming’ with that of ‘commercial farming’ practiced in India.

Ans. The technological advancements gave birth to Green Revolution, White Revolution or Operation Flood.

The Government abolished the Zamindari system. Land Reforms and consolidation of land holdings started after independence.
Radio and television inform the farmers about the new improved techniques of farming.
Rural banks, cooperative societies and Kisan Credit Card ensure easy availability of funds to farmers.
Agriculture is the backbone of the Indian economy.
Considering the importance of agriculture the Government of India took steps to modernize agriculture.
Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) was established.
OR

Intensive subsistence farming is carried out in the areas with high population pressure on land.
Irrigation, fertilisers and pesticides are used to get maximum output from limited land.
Various machines are introduced.
Commercial farming is characterised by use of higher doses of modern inputs in order to obtain higher productivity.
Plantation farming, a form of commercial farming, involves growing of a single crop on a large area.

Q.22 Why is the economic strength of a country measured by the development of manufacturing industries? Explain with examples.
Ans.
1. Utilisation of Natural Resources:
Utilisation of huge volume of natural resources has become possible with the development of industries in the country.

2. Balanced Sectoral Development:
Growth of Industrialisation in the country can attain balanced Sectoral development and it can reduce the too much dependence of the economy on the agricultural sector.

3. Enhanced Capital Formation:
Increasing volume of investment in industries has led to enhancement in the rate of capital formation in the country.

4. Increase in National Income & Foreign Exchange:-
Organised and unorganized industries are jointly contributing a good portion of the total national income of the country.

5. Increase in Job Opportunities:
It Increase the job opportunities for a large section of the population of the country.

Q.23 Describe any five major functions of political parties performed in a democracy.

Ans. Functions of political parties
Parties contest elections by putting up candidates.
In some countries, candidates are selected by members and supporters of a party (eg., USA).
In other countries, candidates are chosen by top party leaders — eg., India.
Parties have different policies and programmes, voters choose from them. In a democracy a large number of people with similar opinions group together and form a party and then give a direction to the policies followed by the government.
The parties that lose elections form the opposition and voice different views and criticize government for its failures. They mobilise opposition to the government.
They shape public opinion. Parties with the help of pressure groups launch movements for solving problems faced by the people.
They provide people access to government machinery and welfare schemes. The local partyleader acts as a link between the citizen and thegovernment officer.

Q.24 “Democracy stands much superior to any other form of government in promoting dignity and freedom of the individual”. Justify this statement.
OR “Democracies lead to peaceful and harmonious life among citizens”. Justify this statement.
Ans. Dignity and Freedom of the Citizens
(i) Democracy promotes dignity and freedom of the individual
Every individual wants to receive respect from fellow beings?
Democracies have achieved this to a certain degree in many countries
(ii) Dignity of Women
Women had to fight long battles to receive their due in society.
Societies across the world have been male dominated. It is absolutely essential that women should get equal treatment.
Women can now wage a struggle against what is now unacceptable legally and morally. In a non-democratic set-up, women would not have a legal basis to fight for equality.
Societies across the world have been male dominated. It is absolutely essential that women should get equal treatment.
Of course, women still have to struggle. They are not always given their due respect even in democracies.
(iii) Caste Inequalities:
In India, the disadvantaged and discriminated castes have gained in strength due to democracy. They have now the legal and moral right to fight for equal status and equal opportunities. There are still instances of atrocities and inequalities suffered by people because of caste, but they are not supported by law or moral code.

(iv) A democracy is always striving towards a better goal. People constantly demand more benefits in a democracy. There are always more expectations.
(v) People now look critically at the work of those who hold power, the rich, the powerful. They express their dissatisfaction loudly. It shows they are no longer subjects but citizens of a democratic country.
OR Democracy is considered better because

It promotes equality among citizens
It recognizes and enhances the dignity of the individual
Improves the quality of decision making
Provides a method to resolve conflicts
Allows room to correct mistakes

Q.25 How has foreign trade been integrating markets of different countries? Explain with examples. OR
How do we feel the impact of globalization on our daily life? Explain with examples.
Ans. Globalisation means integrating the economy of a country with the economies of other countries under conditions of free flow of trade and capital and movement of persons across borders.
Integration of markets in different countries is known as foreign trade.
MNCs are playing a major role in the process of rapid integration or interconnection between countries.
Now more regions of the world are in closer contact with each other than a few decades back.
MNCs play an important role in the Indian economy by setting up production jointly with some of the local companies
Rapid improvement in information and communication technology has been one major factor that has stimulated the Globalisation process.
OR

Let us see the effect of foreign trade through the example of Chinese toys in the Indian market. Chinese toys have become more popular in the Indian market because of their cheaper prices and new designs. Now Indian buyers have a greater choice of toys and at lower prices. Simultaneously, Chinese toy makers get the opportunity to expand business. On the other side, Indian toy makers face losses.
Only skilled and educated class has benefited from Globalisation.
There is a greater choice for consumers, with a variety of goods and at cheap prices. Now they enjoy a much higher standard of living.
Q.26 [A] Two features a and b are marked on the given political outline map of India. Identify these features with the help of the following information and write their correct names on the lines marked near them:

[a] The place where the Indian National Congress Session was held.

[b] The place where Gandhiji organized ‘Satyagraha’ in favour of cotton mill workers.
[B] Locate and label the following with appropriate symbols on the same given outline political map of India. [i]Raja Sansi-International Airport

[ii] Bhadravati-Iron and Steel Plant

[iii] Software Technology Park of West Bengal

Ans.
[A] Identification
(a) Madras
(b) Ahmedabad
[B] Location and Labelling
[i] Raja Sansi -Amritsar
[ii] Bhadravati -Karnataka
[iii] Software Technology Park of West Bengal – Kolkata

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